The surgical Microscope has revolutionized the practice of spine surgery. Magnification, Stereoscopic View and Illumination has contributed to the evolution of Minimally Invasive approaches, possibly leading to better surgical outcomes.
Neuromonitoring is a technology that allows the surgeon to assess spinal cord function during surgery through real-time feedback from individual nerve roots, motor tracts, and sensory tracts. The multidisciplinary support of hardware and software development and the evolution of anesthesiology has not only made neuromonitoring possible in the present, but routine.
Computer-assisted spine surgery (CASS) is a discipline that uses novel computer-based technologies, including stereotaxy, navigated surgery and robotics. Navigation assisted spine surgery is a group of technologies, which allow the surgeon to access real-time, three dimensional and virtual images of the spine in relation to the surgical instruments intraoperatively.